Hymenenoplasty (repair of hymen): Situation in the world and Turkey


 (This speech was held at the 2015 Urojinekology Congress, where I was speaker and chairman)

What is Hymenenoplasty?

It is repair of the hymen. Description used as synonymies:

  • Hymenoplasty
  • Hymenorrhaphy
  • Hymen reconstruction
  • Hymen repair
  • Revirgination

Reconstruction of virginity:


  • Temporary hymenoplasty
  • Permanent himenoplasty
  • Placing gel containing red dye, capsule, sponge into the vagina

Why hymenoplasty?

  • For women to protect themselves in societies where virginity is a must in marriage
  • To reinstate hymen after cases such as rape
  • On special days such as wedding anniversary or Valentine’s Day, to provide experience of hymen defloration again

How does the Gynecology

Associations handle this topic

  • Vaginal rejuvenation
  • Vaginoplasty
  • G-spot amplification
  • Hymenoplasty



These procedures do not have a medical indication. Efficiency and safety have not been documented.

There is not enough research on long-term satisfaction, safety and complication rates

Lack of sufficient data should be reported to the patient and the patient should be informed about possible complications such as infection, lack of sensitivity, dyspareunia, adhesion and scarring.

72 studies between 1900-2010. Only 2 of them are Level II evidence. Ostrzenski. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011


Where is hymenoplasty performed?

•       Muslim countries

  • Western countries where Muslims live
  • Rare in some Christian communities
    • Georgia
    • Guatemala
    • India

Himenoplasty is a process mostly demanded by Muslims

What do the Muslim

authorities say?

  • Suad Salih, Egypt, 2007, Al-Azhar Shariah University, the former dean,
    • Women can undergo hymenoplasty on the two conditions
      • Rape
      • If she is regret and repent
    • Ali Cuma, Egypt, 2007, the Great Mufti, 2nd clergyman after Al- Azhar,
      • If the woman regrets and does not repeat it, hymenoplasty can be
      • A woman can lie to her husband about her previous sex life. Because the husband has no right to ask such a
    • Tamimi Yasin, Jordan, 1995,
      • In Islam, sex must be in marriage. Hymen exists to protect women from
      • Hymenoplasty should not be performed. It opens the door to many


600 university students

Those who thinks hymenoplasty should be performed (26% male, 19% female)

22% Christian, 22% Muslim

80% of them see it as lie and betrayal

61% of men and 27% of women think that sex can be experienced before marriage for both sexes.

Christians: 76% male, 44% female)

Muslims: 49% male, 13% female)

40% of Muslim men and 18% of Christians refuse to marry a girl who is not a virgin.

Accepted by

  • Women’s right, individual freedom 72%
  • After all, physical violence and death can be 5%

wad et al. Arch Sex Behav. 2013


534 students, Dicle University,

  • 3% had sexual intercourse (88% male, 44% female)
  • Hymen is important and symbol of virginity (74% male, 72% female)
  • It is important that a woman is virgin (Men 77%, women 11%)
  • Those who say bloody bed sheets should be shown to the family after first marriage day (30% male, 11% female)

Essizoglu A et al. Women Health 2011


  • Study carried out among 500 university students in Ankara
    • 33% had sexual intercourse
    • 48% Male, 19% Female student

Cok et al. 2001


550 medical faculty students

  • 61% male and 18% female students had sexual intercorse

Aras et al. Biosoc Sci. 2007

Ozan et al. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2005

West Anatolia

İstanbul, Eskişehir, Kütahya, University students Sexual intercourse rate

Men: % 76, % 66, % 60

Women: %31, %23, %18

Askun et al. Arch Sex Behav. 2007


Sexual intercourse rate in university students



Ankara İzmir Kutahya Eskisehir Istanbul
% % % % %
Men 3.8 48 67 60 66 76
Wom en 0.5 19 11 18 23 31


Essizoglu et al. Women Health 2011 Cok et al. 2001

Ozan et al. 2005

Askun et al. Arch Sex Behav. 2007


Questions we will answer in

the panel

•       Is hymenoplasty a solution?

  • What should be the attitude of physicians in this de factocase?
  • Is hymenoplasty a woman’s right?
  • Should the hymenenoplasty be perceived as an aesthetic procedure that the woman does on her own?
  • Should the physician take into account the negative social dimension to be experienced by the woman?
  • Is hymenenoplasty ethical?
  • Does the doctor’s action mislead the law?


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