What are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer?

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The symptoms of ovarian cancer, ovarian cancer is a common type of cancer seen with uterine cancer in our country. The symptoms of ovarian cancer, since it will not directly exhibit symptoms related to the organ it has started, admission to the doctor is prolonged and the diagnosis is delayed since it will manifest symptoms mimicking other diseases. Therefore, 70-80% of the patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Women should regularly have gynecological examination for the diagnosis of this type of cancer at an early stage. Such an examination once a year is important for early diagnosis of risky diseases.

The Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

What are the symptoms of ovarian cancer?

Typical symptoms to be taken into account:

  • Experiencing involuntary weight loss
  • Experiencing vaginal bleeding at unexpected times
  • Inability to eat due to sudden appetite loss and feeling of early satiety
  • Bladder complaints: frequent urination
  • Intestinal changes: Continuous constipation
  • Symptoms of ovarian cancer, experiencing persistent indigestion, gas spasms, having nausea periods
  • Feeling of fullness and pain in the inguinal area
  • Feeling of increased intra-abdominal pressure and excessive bloating

The Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

Risk groups for ovarian cancer:

  • People that may have a genetic predisposition
  • People with a history of other type of cancer
  • Having an advanced age
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol consumption
  • No previous delivery

People with less chance of developing ovarian cancer;

The symptoms of ovarian cancer, according to the research, the risk of developing ovarian cancer appears to reduce in people who are married at an early age and had single child. In addition, the use of birth control pills for a period of at least one year reduces the risk factors. There is no such thing that such individuals will never develop cancer, they are only at lower risk.

Methods to be used for the diagnosis:

  • Laboratory blood test: A tumor marker, known as CA 125, is analyzed in the blood. Although it is not a cancer symptom alone when found above the normal level, it is the first blood test to be analyzed on the path to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. In postmenopausal women, CA 125 test result indicates cancer at a higher rate. The symptoms of ovarian cancer, In addition, HE4 test, which allows to make diagnosis at a higher rate, has been started to be used recently.
  • Pelvic and abdominal examination: The detection of bloating can help the diagnosis in the manual examination of the doctor. In addition, the presence of mass can be detected by the gynecologist during manual examination.
  • Radiological examinations: Doppler ultrasound, computed tomography, PET and MRI can detect cysts, presence of mass, fluid accumulated in the intraabdominal cavity and tumoral structures in a woman, if any.
  • Laparotomy and diagnostic laparoscopy: Laparoscopic techniques are used to confirm the diagnosis in patients with suspecious cysts and in those found to have mass. If there are detected masses, these structures are removed and sent to the pathology to evaluate the tumor structure. The symptoms of ovarian cancer, with the detection of a malignant tumor came back from the pathology, comprehensive cancer metastasis investigations are started and the treatment process is initiated according to the stage, and measures are taken. In addition, this procedure is performed under the operating room conditions in a way called “frozen section”. The symptoms of ovarian cancer, the tumoral mass is removed with laparoscopy and sent to the pathology, the pathologist immediately analyze it in the operating room, and the surgery ends if the result is negative and if it is cancer, the surgery is extended. In ovarian cancers, the goal should be to determine whether the tumor is malignant or not, and if it is malignant, to determine its stage and to administer the most appropriate treatment.

The symptoms of ovarian cancer

Tumor can be removed at an early stage with laparoscopic (closed) surgeries:

Tumors that are structurally small and limited to the ovaries can easily be removed using laparoscopic methods. As it will be diagnosed at an early stage, it will not spread and the recovery process of the patients will be easier without the need for open surgery. However, these techniques are not used in advanced stage cancers and open surgeries are needed.

The symptoms of ovarian cancer, in treated patients, cancer may recur in about five years and for this reason, patients should be under follow-up for five years by visiting their doctors for follow-up examinations every four months.

Removal of the fallopian tubes  

If any operation is planned in the abdomen, if a woman does not want child or has completed her family, the tubes should be removed during the operation (bilateral salpingectomy). It has been found in recent years that the tubes play a role in the development of ovarian cancer, and this procedure will protect a woman from ovarian cancer. For this reason, it is preferred to remove the tubes instead of ligating the tubes.